By M.D. Fulton Roberts
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Extra info for An Introduction to Human Blood Groups
Second, THE ABO 59 SYSTEM anti-A, also a naturally-occurring room-temperature agglutinating antibody reacting with human A x and A 2 cells. Third, anti-A p an immune, body-temperature hsemolysing antibody reacting with human and pig Group A cells. Less is known about anti-B. e. in Group O) their properties differ slightly from those when they are separate (as in Group A or Group B persons), or when artificially mixed from persons of the latter groups. e. some anti-B seems to be absorbed by A cells and vice versa, almost as if there were some antigenic component common to both groups and recognised by the sera of Group O persons, or some Group O persons, alone.
If an anti-Fy a antibody alone is used to examine red cells the results are expressed thus, Fy(a + ) or Fy(a —), for all t h a t this test could disclose is the presence or absence of the antigen Fy a . If it is present, Fy(a +)> one cannot say whether the cells are homozygous or heterozygous ; if it is absent, Fy(a —-), one has not MINOR GROUPS AND THEIR NOTATION 45 & direct evidence that Fy is present until the cells are tested with anti-Fy b . When both antibodies are used the results are expressed thus ; homozygous Fy a cells would be Fy(a + b —), but hétérozygotes, reacting with both sera, would be Fy(a + b + ), and finally those cells reacting only with anti-Fy& would be Fy(a — b + ) · By way of summary the notations may be listed thus : Group Known genes Possible genotypes Phenotypes determined by use of one antibody Phenotypes determined using both antibodies Duffy Fy a and Fy& Fy a Fy a or Fy a Fy & or Fy&Fy& Fy(a+)orFy(a-) Fy(a + b - ) o r F y ( a + b + ) orFy(a — b + ) This table illustrates the uses of the terms phenotype and genotype.
THE ABO SYSTEM 61 For this purpose some of the patient's serum is obtained and exposed to some cells from the particular sample of blood to be administered. This is to ensure t h a t no antibodies are present in the patient's serum t h a t would react with, and hence destroy, the transfused blood. This procedure is designed to cover all blood-group antibodies, not merely anti-A or anti-B, and it may be necessary, if the patient is thought to have antibody in the incomplete form, to perform the cross-match by some technique designed to reveal this form of antibody such as the albumin test or the antiglobulin test.
An Introduction to Human Blood Groups by M.D. Fulton Roberts