New PDF release: Alpine Ecosystems in the Northwest Caucasus

By V. G. Onipchenko (auth.), Vladimir G. Onipchenko (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1402023839

ISBN-13: 9781402023835

ISBN-10: 9048166497

ISBN-13: 9789048166497

Plant geographical description of the world, syntaxonomy, spatial styles, floristic richness, constitution of plant groups with regards to soil houses and herbivore impression have been defined for a mountain quarter that's tough to entry. Seasonal, inter-annual, and long term dynamics of plants are mentioned at the base of long term observations in addition to pollen and phytolith analyses. inhabitants biology of alpine crops is studied via mixture of box observations and mathematical modelling. Plant inhabitants thoughts and soil seed banks are defined for alpine crops from a number of groups. result of long term ecological experiments (plant reciprocal transplantations, dominant removals, gentle hindrance) confirmed the importance of pageant and facilitation for neighborhood association. constitution of soil algal and fungal groups is represented in addition to mycorrhiza of alpine vegetation. major animal teams (wild) historical past and sleek nature conservation difficulties are discussed.

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F. M. Vorob'eva (1977) lists the following elements of the alpine landscape: a) valley bottoms (mainly glacial), filled with moraine and fluvioglacial deposits; b) moraine ridges; c) avalanche debris fans; d) bottoms of former lakes and lake-like glacial reservoirs, filled with fluvioglacial till; e) steep slopes, often notched by avalanches; f) gentle slopes and peneplain surfaces; g) mountain cirques with vast stone fields, screes, taluses, rock streams, snow patches and glaciers; h) rocks. The opportunities for snow accumulation as well as the duration and thickness of the snow cover on slopes vary greatly and depend on various factors, with the orientation and steepness of slopes being the most important (SchrOter 1926, Walter & Breckle 1994, Franz 1979, Reisigl & Keller 1987, Komer 1999, Onipchenko 2002).

The most chionophobic communities of the alpine belt are the alpine heaths, which occupy windward stony slopes and crests between 2700 and 3000 m above sea level. Heaths have common features both with tundra and meadows. Epigeal lichens (Cetraria islandica, C. nivalis, Cladina mitis, Thamnolia vermicularis) play an important role in these communities. Several grasses and sedges, reflective of poor soils, are among them: Festuca ovina, Carex sempervirens, Kobresia capillifolia. A few forb species (Anemone speciosa, Campanula tridentata, Gentiana pyrenaica, Trifolium polyphyllum, Antennaria dioica) contribute to the picturesque aspect.

Carex cespitosa, C. hartman ii, C. lasiocarpa, C. limosa, C. muricata, C. vesicaria and some others are the most common sedges. Rushes are represented by Juncus articulatus, J effusus and J flli/ormis. Cotton grasses (Eryophorum polystachyon, E. vaginatum) are also typical for the moors. 3. Zakharov) In the upper part of the Teberda River basin mixed forests extend along steep slopes up to the altitude of 1300-1500 m. 5). The herbaceous layer in beech forests is composed of typical species of the "nemoral complex": Aegopodium podagraria, Sanicula europaea, Aruncus vulgaris, Galium odoratum, Festuca aitissima, Hordelymus europaeus, Athyriumfllix-femina, Dryopteris fllix-mas, D.

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Alpine Ecosystems in the Northwest Caucasus by V. G. Onipchenko (auth.), Vladimir G. Onipchenko (eds.)

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