By Gerd Gigerenzer
The place do new principles come from? what's social intelligence? Why do social scientists practice senseless statistical rituals? This important booklet is set rethinking rationality as adaptive pondering: to appreciate how minds focus on their environments, either ecological and social.
Gerd Gigerenzer proposes and illustrates a daring new study software that investigates the psychology of rationality, introducing the thoughts of ecological, bounded, and social rationality. His path-breaking assortment takes examine on pondering, social intelligence, creativity, and decision-making out of an airy global the place the legislation of good judgment and chance reign, and locations it into our genuine international of human habit and interplay. Adaptive pondering is accessibly written for common readers with an curiosity in psychology, cognitive technological know-how, economics, sociology, philosophy, man made intelligence, and animal habit. It additionally teaches a realistic viewers, reminiscent of physicians, AIDS counselors, and specialists in felony legislations, find out how to comprehend and converse uncertainties and dangers.
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Additional info for Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World (Evolution and Cognition)
The symbol-manipulating nature of the computer was important to Simon because it corresponded to some of his earlier views on the nature of intelligence: The metaphor I'd been using, of a mind as something that took some premises and ground them up and processed them into conclusions, began to transform itself into a notion that a mind was something which took some program inputs and data and had some processes which operated on the data and produced output, (cited in McCorduck, 1979, p. 127) It is interesting to note that 20 years after seeing the computer as a symbolmanipulating device, Newell and Simon came forth with the explicit hypothesis that a physical symbol system is necessary and sufficient for intelligence.
FROM TOOLS TO THEORIES S. Pearson, but without acknowledgment. The fact that Fisherians and Neyman-Pearsonians could never agree on a logic of statistical inference is not mentioned in the textbooks, nor are the controversial issues that divide them. Even alternative statistical logics for scientific inference are rarely discussed. For instance, Fisher (1955) argued that concepts such as Type II error, power, the setting of a level of significance before the experiment and its interpretation as a long-run frequency of errors in repeated experiments are concepts inappropriate for scientific inference—at best they could be applied to technology (his pejorative example was Stalin's).
But knowing that lineage can help to refine and criticize the new ideas. In those cases in which the tools-to-theories heuristic operates, this means taking a long, hard look at the tools—and the statistical tools of social scientists are overdue for such a skeptical inspection. Discussion New technologies have been a steady source of metaphors of mind: "In my childhood we were always assured that the brain was a telephone switchboard. ')," recalled John Searle (1984, p. 44). The tools-totheories heuristic is more specific than general technology metaphors.
Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World (Evolution and Cognition) by Gerd Gigerenzer